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Medical Innovations of the Brain with James Temperton
Hello, and welcome to the brain. Candy podcast Central.
My name is Don, Marissa fight, we make small supplement. I'm clever content with the world's leading expert help you take care of your brain so it can take care of you.
Today, we welcome. James temperature in the digital editor of Wyatt to discuss more insights and lessons from his new series of short guys by Wyatt. And our focus is on the future of medicine. As it was in the last episode where we explore, what's an amazing things like aging and design a baby's. This time, we're going to focus more on the potential medical. Innovations of all things brain. You'll be pleased to know cuz that's really why you're here. So James, welcome back its back. Now, annual Brillion chapter on the brain. You mentioned the desert is in the brain affects nearly one-fifth of the world's population and you're even after Decades of research that has little to no progress, actually made an understanding the molecular causes of psychiatric disorders. So why don't we start with why that is
Turns out the brains is really complicates is that start with the image of a dead body of that body lying on a slab in the in the mortuary or in a research facility? So what happens to the body when she died is unpleasant? But doesn't do a lot to diminish. Our ability to study the body but the brain is quite different. So that's the blood drains away from your brain. If it changes color, it goes from being sort of a yellowish pink to a cold turkey gray and effectively the brain starts to eat itself. Becomes acidic cells collapse in a process called liquid application. And after just a few minutes of being dead, your brain is either the Sibley. John Susan, you're a science that is not very useful. We're able to study non brain tissue very, very successfully off to death but when it comes to seeing those neurons firing
Asking questions about how did your brain is being communicating on Miss communicating in the monks? Or if it's different departments. If you, like that's impossible to even the most meticulous, leave for the brain tissue as being frozen, cutting to a tiny very, very thin translucent, slice less than a couple of minutes to stick. It's not useless. But it's almost uses when you think of their 86 billion neurons and hundreds of trillions of sign outs is in the human brain has lost the second someone dies. So access to tissue that you can study is really really hard in neuroscience and it's not the case that we can take someone's brain out and study it. So this is the major major blaka to your scientific research and access to living firing tissue. You mentioned in the book of quite remarkable development.
Scientist says your pasta which was inspired, I Believe by shinya yamanaka. It was a Japanese Nobel Prize winner in physiology. Tell us about that story. I wouldn't actually means we'll help all. We can understand the brain in the future, but immediate present pretty much. So what pasta is being able to do building on the yamanaka is come up with the potential for studying living brain tissue or brain like tissue in a Petri dish time. I'm flip a fully developed sell back into its egg light state. If you imagine any cell has the potential to become any cell phone, sit in that act. Like stay so very surprising because you might imagine we presume the development was a one-way streets. But what yamanaka found where the proteins that could turn a skin cell for example into a brain cell and this
Process to simplify. It works by exposing ourselves to a set of genes that are found in stem cells. Need the monster cells. Give rise to all of it happens, remarkably those cells also become Mazda cells and that means that you can turn them into anything you want to. It was a really, really massive breakthrough. This man in the past, you can take skin cells from the patient with a psychiatric disorder and reprogram them in seat, stem cells. And then why do cells neurons of brain tissue? The weather like for him to study the cellular processes. The what happening in that patient in a non-invasive way? I'm was crucial head. Is there a able to take skin cells from the specific patient with the specific condition that they wanted to study it? Very very early stages but it's opening up the possibility of doing what were they
Do with cancer. For example, in neuroscience
You know, you mentioned as well as some great Insight in the book and how you actually think the medical research can help with the treatment of mental neurological diseases, and I'm not too distant future. So shut up please, that's incredibly powerful. So what you're able to see, once you've got living firing tissue in front of you, is the processes, the mites lead to certain conditions and disorders. This is a very, very complicated area and it's very much in its infancy to the Catholic caveat that it really important to make a great great pains to point out that he's not growing many brains. What he's growing herbs that you resemble and Cheryl characteristics with brain tissue. But they are not miniature brains but they allow him to see the processes but might drive certain conditions so high schools conducted a study on people with Timothy's.
Which is a rare and often fatal genetic condition is caused by some of the same gene variants their associated with schizophrenia and some forms of autism spectrum, disorder and bipolar disorder. What's interesting about the research? His past has been able to do, is he's been able to understand why people with Timothy syndrome. Get Timothy syndrome or why it appears that they got Timmy syndrome. By looking at what happens in the brains by using this. The stem-cell technique Imports remarkable is early on in his research, questions about how successfully these Globs of cells would be able to survive in the lab. Several iterations. The experiment has been able to extend the lifespan.
On his experiments and these things that he's crying in in in Petri dishes that we know that they're not intelligent than not brains. They showed the same process is in line to study them is that they become more complex in a way. They start sit in it, together in ways that match. Fetal development. That never going to turn into a fully-fledged. Brian. That is most going on here, but they allow him to see a very basic facsimile of the process that's happening inside these patients, into understands the biomarkers. If you liked it, you'd have to sell you, the clues. The processes that are going on within the brain. That suggest why someone might be schizophrenic or why? Someone might have bipolar disorder, once we find these areas.
That we can potentially Target or explore in more detail that opens up possibilities in Neuroscience. The previously only been possible day in treating cancer or diabetes.
Some famous comedians like Tiffany haddish and Kathryn Hall on the authors, like, talk to elim socks, athlete's like NHL Legend, Theo Fleury, and regular everyday people. That's something they all have in common. They would bet that sells on the mental illness, Happy Hour podcast every week. Since 2011, they along with host Paul Gilmartin, having talking about the things that many of us have never said out loud. Sometimes funny sometimes heartbreaking, but always on, it's inhuman. The New York Times, close the mental illness. Happy hour a perversity say space in which he and his guests, talk about that fizz addictions. I'm traumatic childhoods as far as a vital compassionate gem that fills A desperate and under dress needs in our society. That psychology today says normalizes was so many others feel, but it being so fearful or shame to express its remarkable. So, what do you say? Listen to the mental illness? Happy hour review, get your poke house.
What else was there that you unpack tearing this chapter, they haven't yet, had the opportunity to share that got you excited about the new possibilities of all bring her opportunities. As a species, I'm sure one of your lessons will be familiar with the Human Genome Project and they might even be familiar with the human sat out this, which is a similar project has been ongoing for the last several years. To create a vast mess is the name, suggestive? Every single cell in the human body is one of the largest collaborative was a science instead of being undertaken. I turned out that subversion of that for me or a science quote. So I can code be running. Since 2015 is funded to the tune of 50 million dollars by various institutes in the United States. And its aim is to create a public face of the genetic and biological processes that are active throughout the human brain. It's a, it's a brain map so I might just buy mutations in a single Gene cystic fibrosis, free sample.
Most of your lunch, go see some orders are by their very nature. Really, really complex in the result of hundreds of genetic variations and environmental factors which makes it really really hard to pinpoint, which fact is carry with them. The highest risk of disease, what size engine code is aiming to do is give us an index, something that we can look to use as a reference to make sure that when we looking at individual patients, were able to understand potentially. What's going on inside their own brain match against what we know about quote unquote, a healthy oil to the base model reference brain, and that will allow us to find those variations to find those moments where something appears to be awry and then potentially, once you go to good enough knowledge of order, those different variations will be able to develop treatments to Target.
Alexandria's potentially. So this is the very, very beginning of Neuroscience in Psychiatry being able to treat the brain in the same way as we treat the body again. It's really, really, ethically complicated, and it's a lot of stuff still to be worked out. But what we seeing in the pioneering bits of research is what might be possible with the first glimpse of a future where Psychiatry and you're a science have access to the same quality of information as the treatment of cancer diabetes. And another genetic conditions.
You mention, you know, exactly, complicated just had a high-level. What are the ethical implications and in this circumstance. So, to take my autism spectrum disorder. If you're able to find by Marcus, she's asked why someone might be autistic. That is a very, very complicated area. Even with regards to get the free of these aren't conditions and disorders that we used to treating the way that we might be able to treat them in the future. So if you know someone who's who has autism spectrum disorder, we should even treat them to say that they should be described the medicine or that some of the medical intervention should be made wrong with them all the way around. These are incredibly loud and it's important to speak very, very casually, we're not used to having conversations about potentially being out with you.
These conditions in sodas and why would you actually want or need to cure autism controversy in the complexity in this area? Is once we found the buy milk. Is that suggest why someone potentially might have certain conditions and disorders? What do we do then do? There's no question that if we find me to buy markets to suggest that someone has cancer that we should intervene on that Council does not need to be in people's bodies to buy. Mach is the suggested someone might have a sudden nearest psychiatric condition is not yet anything to suggest that we should intervene. And as with designer babies. Two discussing that we need to have a society. Once we're able to understand potentially the processes that drive these disorders and conditions we need to have a very, very, very complicated. An important discussion about if we can act how we Act
Brian James. Thank you. And so, so poignant and social provoking, as well. Before you go, as this is the Brain Cap. Lacoste, I'd love to know how you take care of your brain and your own life. What do you do on a regular basis to make sure you let you know? After your number one I'm sure this isn't unique to myself. It was speaking on a beautiful sunny afternoon here in London on something that I've discovered through meltdown is the importance of getting out of the house, doing a little bit of side of physical exercise, taking a few gulps of fresh air. So I never would have thought I would have said this book for the last ten months, what side of town I've taken out running so there's nothing quite as good as going outside. Getting a bit of sunshine running around letting your mind, rest of whatever it wants to dress and I found that to be absolutely invaluable. Particularly, I'm over some of that. The dog is States in lockdown.
Amazing. James being a brilliant gas. Thank you so much. Where can people find you? Follow you and all this lie. I don't know if it's to get the books at J. 10% on Twitter that you can check out yukiye. It's okay. UK and the book is the future of medicine, how we will enjoy longer healthy and wise and it's available pretty much any way that you could think to buy a book. Amazing. Thank you so much. Thanks for having me.
Thank you so much for listening to this episode of the brain candy podcast to get to leave us a review And subscribe. If you don't miss any future episodes and follow us on Instagram and Rain car. If you want to know more about how healthy your brain is, you can head to your height. Call Brain, how to get you a free school from one to a hundred, see you next time.
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Albert Einstein said, 'If you can't explain it simply enough, you haven't understood it well enough'.Dr Andrew brings such simplicity to explaining the workings of the brain. It's actually a hacker's guide into our own brain. You are doing great service to humanity Dr Andrew.·6 likes·
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